Using a federal wage database, investigators checked whether a sample of disability beneficiaries had worked and earned significant wages during the waiting period, the report said. They found that most of the improper payments went to people who worked during the five months they waited for payments to begin.
Once people start receiving benefits, they can return to work and still get benefits during a trial work period, in an attempt to re-enter the workforce. Using the same wage database, investigators checked whether another sample of disability beneficiaries earned significant wages after their trial work period had ended, the report said.
Based on their findings, the GAO estimated the amount of improper payments and the number of people receiving them.
Citing a potential weakness, the report said Social Security might not detect a person who worked during the waiting period if the period started in one year and ended in another. For example, if Social Security starts paying benefits in February, the agency might not detect significant wages earned the previous November because they weren’t earned in the same year that benefits were awarded, the report said.
In a written response to the report, the Social Security Administration agency questioned whether GAO overestimated the amount of overpayments. The agency said investigators did not determine whether the work activity qualified as an unsuccessful attempt to return to work, or whether there were any other special circumstances.
The report comes as Social Security’s disability program faces a financial crisis. If Congress doesn’t act, the trust fund that supports the disability program will run out of money in 2016, according to projections by Social Security’s trustees. At that point, the system will collect only enough money in payroll taxes to pay 80 percent of benefits, triggering an automatic 20 percent cut in benefits.